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The Politics of Cyberconflict

Author: Athina Karatzogianni
Publisher: New York: Routledge, 2006
Review Published: February 2008

 REVIEW 1: Andrew Robinson
 AUTHOR RESPONSE: Athina Karatzogianni

It is a rare occasion to be understood so clearly, and this review is topping that by being intellectually generous.

I would like to take advantage of my response to this review to describe the circumstances of this book, as I think this to be relevant to its content. I hope you will permit my non-academic tone for this specific exercise.

After passing through various fields -- Journalism, International Relations, International Conflict Analysis -- and changing many times my mind over what on Earth was going on, being 22, in that bizarre intersection, I remember waking up one morning after some hideous MA exams and thinking I know something about conflict now, but not enough about the internet and conflict.

My doctoral thesis started at Nottingham with my supervisor, a great, patient man, Professor Ian Forbes, who probably thought I was out of my mind. It was September 1999. For the next couple of years, I would have serious trouble getting material, I would ask fellow students for extra inter-library loan vouchers -- you couldn't find anything on internet politics stuff then, in an otherwise respectable library. My literature review, the first chapter of this book, was a look of what was out there. And even more of what was not there: Cyberconflict, defined in a broader way. It needed a theory, a methodology, a framework, and more.

I needed a PhD. I found out that it was very hard to get one by choosing this subject. When I meet doctoral students now doing work in the area, I always say: "You brave souls!"

Until 2002, I was falling on deaf ears, I could not even upgrade from MPhil to PhD. Only a miraculous publication in the Journal of Politics saved my neck. The war in Iraq and the years 2000-3 added more empirical material to what was already there, more "simulated reality" and more "pornography of suffering" upon which to apply the cyberconflict model. In 2003, the Cyber Conflict Studies Association was founded in the US -- imagine how weird that was!

In Australia, the US, and perhaps a couple of other places, research on ICTs, the impact of the internet on politics, sociology, political economy, and internet security started way before the millennium, but not here in Britain. My viva examination in 2004 was probably the most frustrating day in my life! It was easier to get this book contract than my PhD! Most of the time (and especially when interviewing for academic jobs), people thought I was presenting on mumbo jumbo. I don't blame them. Britain has only of late thrown more researchers to new media and conflict research, as a direct response to 24-hour internet coverage and terrorist propaganda.

Further, the more serious implication of using the lens of this book to look at new media, politics, and conflict is that you will be messing and trespassing many areas, disciplines, and academic turfs. In my opinion, you can't describe a football match well unless you are watching it from as many angles as possible and talking to as many commentators as possible from all sides involved (not to mention how new capturing technology helps). This is what was attempted in this work. Sadly, it was pointed out to me in the early days that it was "too ambitious" and "others have tried and failed, what made you think you could pull it off," and other very encouraging comments.

Nevertheless, I think if you don't trespass and present your work and your ideas to different people from different areas, you might be safe, but you cannot explain and understand anything beyond what you have been spoon-fed as a student.

I have messed with many things in this work, and thoroughly enjoyed it. There are many flaws of course. Here, the complaint that I did not explore enough the implications of the network model is my complaint too, and I am making things right by joining Andrew Robinson towards co-authoring Power, Conflict and Resistance in the Contemporary World: Social Movements, Networks and Hierarchies for the Routledge Advanced Series in International Relations and Global Politics.

This is perhaps where we can discuss more the need or not for greater organizational efficiency. Briefly, my hope is that ICTs combined with more emphasis on stronger organization and more consistency in ideologies and actions does not harm flexibility and does not necessarily encourage hegemonic reduction; enhances the power of the movement/s to communicate frames that global public opinion can engage with for longer periods of time; and can find counterparts more readily in hierarchies to enter in dialogue with.

Lastly, I am editing a volume on Cyber Conflict and Global Politics (Military and Security Studies, Routledge), inviting and welcoming many worthy colleagues to write on the latest instances of cyberconflict and the fast developments in media and war coverage, blogging, social movements and ethnoreligious groups using the internet, open source, politico-economic and cultural cyberconflicts and struggles in netarchical capitalism.

Cyberconflict combines my inner conflicts with all my loves: global politics, the internet, security, journalism, war coverage, world system, and network theory, and I tailored my analysis to suit my bizarre intellectual needs. If other people find pleasure in that then I couldn't be happier!

Athina Karatzogianni


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